The St. Louis directory and register :
Constitution of the U.S.A.
of the
United States of America.
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The constitution framed for the Unìted States of
America, by a Convention of Deputies from the States
of New Hampshire, Massachussetis, Connecticut, New
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Mary-
land, Virginia. North Carolina, South Carolina, and
Georgia, at a session begun May 25, and ended Sep- tember 17. 1787.

We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more
perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquility, provide
for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure
the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and
establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article I.—Section I.

All legislative powers herein granted, shall be vested in a Con-
gress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House
of Representatives.

Section II.

1. The House of Representatives shall consist of members chosen
every second year, by the people of the several states, and the elec-
tors in each state, shall have the qualifications requisite for electors
of the most numerous branch of the state Legislature.

2. No person shall be a representative who shall not have attain-
ed to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen o the United States; and who shall not, when elected, be an inhab-
of that state in which he shall be chosen.

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3. Representatives and direct taxes, shall be apportioned among
the several states, which may be included within this union, accord-
ing to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding
to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service
for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of
all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within
three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the U.United States;
and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as
they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall not
exceed one for every thirty thousand: but each state shall have at
least one representative - and until such enumeration shall be made,
the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three; Mas-
sachusetts eight; Rhode Island and Providence plantations ene;
Connecticut five; New York six; New Jersey four; Pennsylvania
eight; Delaware one; Maryland six; Virginia ten; North Carolina
five; South Carolina five; and Georgia three.

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any state,
the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of electioas to fill
such vacancies.

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and
other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

Section III.

1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two se-
nators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six
years: and each senator shall have one vote.

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of
the first election, they shall be divided, as equally as may be, into
three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be va-
cated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class, at the
expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class at the expiration
of the sixth year: so that one-third may be chosen every second
year. And if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during
the recess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may
make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legisla-
ture, which shall then fill such vacancies.

3. No person shall be a senator, who shall not have attained to
the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United
States; and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that
state for which he shall be chosen

4. The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of
the Senate; but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a Presi-
dent pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he
shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments.
When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation.
When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief-Justice
shall preside, and no person shall be convicted, without the concur-
rence of two-thirds of the members present.

7. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further
than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy
any office of honour, trust, or profit, under the United States. But

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the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to in-
dictment, trial, judgment and punishment according to law.

Section IV.

1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for sena-
tors and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the le-
gislature thereof: but the Congress may, at any time, by law, make
or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing se-

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year; and
such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they
shall by law appoint a different day.

Section V.

1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and
qualifications of its own members; and a majority of each shall con-
stitute a quorum to do business but a smaller number may adjourn
from day to day, and may be authorised to compel the attendance
of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as
each House may provide.

2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings;
punish its members for disorderly behaviour; and with the concur-
rence of two-thirds, expel a member,

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings; and from
time to time, publish the same, excepting such paris as may in their
judgment require secrecy; and the yeas nays of the members of
either House, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of
those present, be entered on the journal.

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without
the consent of the other adjourn for more than three days, nor to
any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section VI.

1. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation
for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the trea-
sury of the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason,
felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, during
their attendance at the session of their respective House, and in
going to, or returning from the same; and for any speech or de-
bate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other

2. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he
was elected, be appointed to any civil office, under the authority of
the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments
whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no per-
son, holding any office under the United States, shall be a member
of either House, during his continuance in office.

Section VII.

1. All bills, for raising revenue, shall originate in the House of
Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with a-
mendments, as on other bills.

2. Every bill, which shall have passed the House of Representa-
tives and the Senate; shall, before it become a law, be presented to
the President of the United States. If he approve, he shall sign it;

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but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House, in
which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large
on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such recon-
sideration, two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it
shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by
which it shall likewise be reconsidered: and, if approved by two-
thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But, in all such cases,
the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays;
and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill, shall be
entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall
not be returned by the President, within ten days (Sundays except-
ed) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law
in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their
adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which he concurrence of
the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except
on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of
the United States; and, before the same shall take effect, be approv-
ed by him; or, being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-
thirds of both Houses, according to the rules and limitations pre-
scribed in the case of a bill.

Section VIII.

The Congress shall have power—

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay
the debts, and provide for the common defence, and general welfare
of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises, shall be
uniform throughout the United States.

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States.

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the
several states, and with the Indian tribes.

4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform
laws on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout the United States.

5 To coin money; regulate the value thereof, and of foreign
coin; and fix the standard of weights and measures.

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities
and current coin of the United States.

7. To establish post offices and post roads.

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by secu-
ring for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right
to their respective writings and discoveries.

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court.

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the
high seas, and offences against the law of nations.

11. To declare war; grant letters of marque and reprisal; and
make rules concerning captures on land and water.

12. To raise and support armies. But no appropriation of money
for that use, shall be for a longer term than two years.

13. To provide and maintain a navy.

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land
and navel forces.

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws
of the union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.

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16. To provide for organizing arming, and disciplining the mili-
tia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the
service of the United States; reserving to the states respectively the
appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia
according to the discipline prescribed by Congress.

17. To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever,
over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by ces-
sion of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the
seat of the government of the United States; and to exercise like
authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature
of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of sorts, ma-
gazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful buildings; and

18. To make all laws, which shall be necessary and proper for
carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers
vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States,
or in any department or officer thereof.

Section IX.

1. The migration or importation of such persons, as any of the
states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited
by the Congress, prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and
eight; but a tax on duty may be imposed on such importation, not
exceeding ten dollars for each person.

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspend-
ed, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety
may require it.

3. No bill of attainder or ex-post facto law shall be passed.

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in pro-
portion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any
state. No preference shall be given, by any regulation of commerce
or revenue, to the ports of one state, overthose of another; nor shall
vessels, bound to or from one state, be obliged to enter, clear or pay
duties in another.

6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in conse-
quence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and
account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be
published from time to time.

7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and
no person, holding any office of profit or trust under them shall,
without the consent of Congress, accept of any present, emolument
office or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or fo-
reign state.

Section X.

1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confederation;
grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emil bills of cre-
dit: make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of
debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex-post facto law, or law impairing
the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

2. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any im-
posts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely

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necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of
all duties and imposts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be
for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws
shall be subject to the revision and controul of the Congress. No
state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on ton-
nage, keep troops, or ships of war, in time of peace, enter into any
agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power,
or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent dan-
ger as will not admit of delay.

Article II.—Section I.

1. The executive power shall be vested in the President of the
United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term
of four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the
same term, be elected as follows;

2. Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature
thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole num-
ber of senators and representatives, to which the state may be en-
titled in the Congress But no senator, or representative, or person
holding any office of trust or profit, under the United States, shall be
appointed an elector

3. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by
ballot for two persons, of whom one, at least, shall not be an inhabi-
tant of the same state with themselves And they shall make a list
of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each;
which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat
of the government of the United States, directed to the President of
the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of
the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates,
and the votes shall then be counted The person having the great-
est number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a ma-
jority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be
more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number
of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose
by ballot one of them for President: and if no person have a ma-
jority, then, from the five highest on the list, the said House shall in
like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President,
the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state
having one vote: a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a mem-
ber or members from two-thirds of the states: and a majority of all
the state shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the
choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of
votes of the electors, shall be the Vice-President But if there
should remain two or more, who have equal votes, the Senate shall
choose from them by ballot, the Vice President.

4 The Congress may determine the time of choosing the elec-
tors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day
shall be the same throughout the United States.

5 No person, except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the
United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall
be eligible to the office of President. Neither shall any person be
eligible to that office, who shall not have attained to the age of thirty
five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the U.United States.

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6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his
death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties
of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President; and
the Congress may, law, provide for the case of removal, death,
resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice-Present,
declaring what officer
shall then act as President; and such officer
shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President
shall be elected.

7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his service,
a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished,
during the period for which he shall have been elected; and he shall
not receive, within that period, any other emolument from the Uni-
ted States, or any of them.

8. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take
the following oath or affirmation.

``I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the
office of President of the United States; and will, to the best of my
ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United

Section II.

1. The President shall be commander in chief of the army and
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states,
when called into the actual service of the United States. He may
require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officers in each of
their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves,
and pardons, for offences against the United States, except in cases
of impeachment.

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of
the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators
present concur: and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice
and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public
ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other of-
ficers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein other-
wise provided for, and which shall be established by law. But the
Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers,
as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law or
in the heads of departments.

3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that
may happen, during the recess of the Senate, by granting commis-
sions, which shall expire at the end of their next session.

Section III.

He shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of
the state of the union; and recommend to their consideration such
measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient. He may on
extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses or either of them;
and, in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the
time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall
think proper. He shall receive ambassadors and other public minis-
ters. He shall take care that the laws he faithfully executed; and
shall commission all the officers of the United States.


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Section IV.

The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United
States, shall be removed from office, on impeachment for, and con-
viction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors

Article III—section I.

The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one su-
preme court, and in such inferior courts, as the Congress may, from
and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour;
and shall, at stated times, receive for their serivcts, a compensation,
which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

Section II.

1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity,
arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and
treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all
cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls; to
all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to
which the United States shall be a party, to controversies between
two or more states, between a state and citizens of another state,
state, claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a
state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.

2 In all cases, affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and
consuls; and those in which a state shall be a party, the supreme
court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before
mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both
as to law and fact; with such exceptions, and under such regulations,
as the Congress shall make.

3. The trial of all crimes except in cases of impeachment, shall
be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said
crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within
any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress
may by law have directed.

Section III.

1. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying
war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid
and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the
testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in
open court.

2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of
treason; but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood,
or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.

Article IV—section I.

Full faith and credit shall be given, in each state, to the public
acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the
Congress may, by penal laws, prescribe the manner in which such
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved and the effect thereof.

Section II.

1. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all the privileges
and immunities of citizens in the several states.


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2. A person charged in any tale with treason, felony or other
crime, who shall flee from justice and found in another state, shall
on demand of the executive authority of the state from which be fled,
be delivered up, to be removed to the state, having jurisdiction of the

3. No person, held to service or labor in one state, under the
laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law
or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor; but
shall he delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or
labor may be due.

Section III.

1. New states may be admitted by the congress into this union;
but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of
any other state—nor any state be formed by the junction of two or
more states or parts of states—without the consent of the legislatures
of the states concerned as well as of the Congress.

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of, and make all
needful cutes and regulations respecting the territory or other pro-
perty belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constitu-
tion shall be so construed, as to prejudice any claims of the United
States, or of any particular state.

Section IV.

The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union, a re-
publican form of government; and shall protect each of them against
invasion, and on application of the legislature, or of the executive
(when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.

Article V.

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or on the
application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall
call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case,
shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution,
when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states,
or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other
mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress. Provided,
that no amendment, which may he made prior to the year one thous-
and eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first and
fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no
state, without its consent shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the

Article VI.

1. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into before the
adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the U.United States,
under this Constitution as under the confederation.

2 This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall
be made in pursuance thereof, and all treatise made, or which shall be
made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme
law of the land, and the judges, in every state, shall be bound there-
by, any thing in the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary

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3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the
members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judi-
cial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall
be bound, by oath or affirmation to support his constitution; but no
religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or
public trust under the United States.

Article VII.

The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient
for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ra-
tifying the same.

Done in Convention, by the unanimous consent of
the states present, the seventeenth day of Septem-
ber, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven
hundred and eighty seven, and of the Indepen-
dence of the United States of America, the 12th.
In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed
our names.

GeorgeWashington, .

President, and Deputy from Virginia .

New Hampshire.
JohnLangdon, ,
NathanielGorham, ,
RufusKing, .
William S.Johnson, ,
RogerSherman, .
New York.
AlexanderHamilton, .
New Jersey.
WilliamLivingston, ,
DavidBrearley, ,
WilliamPatterson, ,
JonathanDayton, .
BenjaminFranklin, ,
ThomasMifflin, ,
RobertMorris, ,
GeorgeClymer, ,
ThomasFitzsimons, ,
JaredIngersoll, ,
JamesWilson, ,
GouverneurMorris, .
GeorgeReed, ,
GunningBedford, Jun.
JohnDickinson, ,
RichardBasset, ,
JacobBroom, .
James M.Henry, ,
Daniel of St. Thomas,
DanielCarrol, .
JohnBlair, ,
JamesMadison, Jun.
North Carolina.
WilliamBlount, ,
Richard D.Sapight, ,
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HughWilliamson, .
South Carolina.
JohnRutledge, ,
Charles C.Pinckney, ,
CharlesPinckney, ,
PierceButler, ,
WilliamFew, ,
AbrahamBaldwin, .

WilliamJackson, , Sec'rysecretary .