The following Articles in addition to, and amendment of
the Constitution of the United States, having been ra-
tified by the Legislatures of nine states, are equally ob-
ligatory with the Constitution itself.
1.—Congress shall make no law respecting an es-
tablishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exer-
cise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or
of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to
assemble, and to petition the government for a re-
dress of grievances.
2.—A well regulated militia being necessary to the
security of a free state, the right of the people to keep
and bear arms shall not be infringed.
3.—No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered
in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor
in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by
4.—The right of the people to be secure in their
persons, houses, papers, and affects, against unrea-
sonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated;
and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause,
supported by oath or affirmation—and particularly
describing the place to be searched, and the persons
or things to be seized.
5.—No person shall be held to answer for a capital
or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment
or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising
in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in
actual service, in time of war, or public danger; nor
shall any person be subject, for the same offence, to
be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be
compelled in any criminal case, to be witness against
himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property,
without due process of law; nor shall private proper-
ty be taken for public use, without just compensation.
6.—In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall
enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an im-
partial jury, of the state and district, wherein the
crime shall have been committed; which district
shall have been previously ascertained by law; and
to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusa-
tion; to be confronted with the witnesses against
him; to have compulsory process for obtaining wit-
nesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of
counsel for his defence.
7.—In suits at common law, where the value in
controversy, shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of
trial by jury, shall be preserved; and no fact tried
by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court
of the United States, than according to the rules of
the common law.
8.—Excessive bail shall not be required, nor exces-
sive fines imposed; nor cruel and unusual punish-
9.—The enumeration, in the constitution, of cer-
tain rights, shall not be construed to deny or dispa-
rage others, retained by the people.
10.—The powers, not delegated to the U.United States, by
the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are
reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
11.—The judicial power of the United States shall
not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equi-
ty, commenced or prosecuted against one of the U.
States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or
subjects of any foreign state.
12.—The electors shall meet in their respective
states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice Pre-
sident, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabi-
tant of the same state with themselves; they shall
name in their ballot the person voted for as Presi-
dent, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as
vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of
all persons voted for as President, and of all persons
voted for as vice-president, and of the number of
votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify,
and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of
the United States, directed to the President of the
Senate; the president of the Senate shall, in the pre-
sence of the Senate and House of Representatives,
open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be
counted; the person having the greatest number of
votes for President, shall be the President, if such
number be a majority of the whole number of electors
appointed; and if no person have such majority, then
from the persons having the highest numbers, not ex-
ceeding three, on the list of those voted for as Presi-
dent, the House of Representatives shall choose imme-
diately, by ballot, the president. But in choosing
the President, the votes shall be taken by shares, the
representation from each state having one vote; a
quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or
members from two thirds of the states, and a majo-
rity of all the states shall be necessary to a choice.
And if the house of representatives shall not choose a
president whenever the right of choice shall devolve
upon them, before the fourth day of March next fol-
lowing, then the vice president shall act as president,
as in the case of the death or other constitutional dis-
ability of the president.
2.—The person having the greatest number of
votes as vice-president, shall be the vice-president, if
such number be a majority of the whole number of
electors appointed; and if no person have a majority
then from the two highest members on the list, the se-
nate shall choose the vice-president; a quorum for
the purpose shall consist of two thirds of the whole
number shall be necessary to a choice.
3.—But no person constitutionally ineligible to the
office of president, shall be eligible to that of vice-
president of the United States.
13.—If any citizen of the United States shall ac-
cept, claim, receive, or retain any title of nobility or
honor, or shall, without the consent of congress, ac-
cept and retain any present, pension, office or emolu-
ment of any kind whatever, from any emperor, king,
prince, or foreign power, such per on shall cease to
be a citizen of the United States, and shall be incapa-
ble of holding any office of trust or profit under them,
or either of them.