The following Articles in addition to, and amendment of
the Constitution of the United States, having been ra-
tified by the Legislatures of nine states, are equally ob-
ligatory with the Constitution itself.
1.—Congress shall make no law respecting an es-
tablishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exer-
cise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or
of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to
assemble, and to petition the government for a re-
dress of grievances.
2.—A well regulated militia being necessary to the
security of a free state, the right of the people to keep
and bear arms shall not be infringed.
3.—No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered
in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor
in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by
4.—The right of the people to be secure in their
persons, houses, papers, and affects, against unrea-
sonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated;
and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause,
supported by oath or affirmation—and particularly
describing the place to be searched, and the persons
or things to be seized.
5.—No person shall be held to answer for a capital
or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment