16. To provide for organizing arming, and disciplining the mili-
tia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the
service of the United States; reserving to the states respectively the
appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia
according to the discipline prescribed by Congress.
17. To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever,
over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by ces-
sion of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the
seat of the government of the United States; and to exercise like
authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature
of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of sorts, ma-
gazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful buildings; and
18. To make all laws, which shall be necessary and proper for
carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers
vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States,
or in any department or officer thereof.
1. The migration or importation of such persons, as any of the
states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited
by the Congress, prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and
eight; but a tax on duty may be imposed on such importation, not
exceeding ten dollars for each person.
2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspend-
ed, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety
may require it.
3. No bill of attainder or ex-post facto law shall be passed.
4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in pro-
portion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be
5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any
state. No preference shall be given, by any regulation of commerce
or revenue, to the ports of one state, overthose of another; nor shall
vessels, bound to or from one state, be obliged to enter, clear or pay
duties in another.
6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in conse-
quence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and
account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be
published from time to time.
7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and
no person, holding any office of profit or trust under them shall,
without the consent of Congress, accept of any present, emolument
office or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or fo-
1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confederation;
grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emil bills of cre-
dit: make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of
debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex-post facto law, or law impairing
the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.
2. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any im-
posts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely