1. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into before the
adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the U.United States,
under this Constitution as under the confederation.
2 This Constitution and the laws of the United States which shall
be made in pursuance thereof, and all treatise made, or which shall be
made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme
law of the land, and the judges, in every state, shall be bound there-
by, any thing in the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary