No, parent involvement was not new. I went to Brooklyn schools all my life. I grew up in Brooklyn in the '50s. My mother was the president of the PTA, of our local PTA. For over seven years she served as the president. She served as he--representative to the United Parents Association, which is a city-wide body. I would say that after World War 2, with the increasing numbers of Black parents that were moving to locations like Brooklyn from the South, they were concerned about the quality of education that their children were going to receive. And they only way that they could assure that their children would receive any kind of meaningful education in the public schools was by being involved. And so, you found larger and larger numbers of Black parents becoming involved through the PTAs, through the United Parents Association, and through other types of school and educational organizations.
OK. OK, I think