OK, IN THE MOVEMENT AT THIS POINT IN ‘64, IN REACTION TO ALL THE VIOLENCE THAT HAD BEEN INFLICTED ON TO PEOPLE, THERE WERE PEOPLE WHO WERE ALREADY SAYING VERY CLEARLY THAT THE MOVEMENT HAD TAKEN ENOUGH AND THAT THERE WAS A LOGICAL END AND NONVIOLENCE, PEOPLE LIKE MALCOLM AND OTHER PEOPLE--
Yes, it was clear that nonviolence as a tactic was losing ground because of the massive violence that we had encountered, in the South. Not only Malcolm X was saying this, some of the CORE and SNCC activists were saying it. When I had to get out of town in Louisiana, Blackmon, Louisiana, in the back of a hearse to escape a lynch mob that was screaming for my blood, one of the young CORE staff fellows who was with me, Ronny Moore, said when we arrived in New Orleans, "Jim, we love you dearly and we'll go with you through hell and high water, but next time when we go through a night like that, we're going to have hardware with us." I'd like also to point out that Stokely Carmichael and H. Rap Brown were at one time dedicated SNCC staff persons in the deep South committed to nonviolence and following it. But their heads were beaten so many times that they gave nonviolence up.