First question's on response in 1961 to 1962.
In say 1961, 1962 when I came first to know Malcolm, my perceptions from what I experienced, ah, were that say most White people, probably nearly all from the better, from the exposure I had ranged from being very, very apprehensive about Malcolm to hating Malcolm, the image of Malcolm which had been purveyed by the media, of course. And, ah, ah, that was not too far afield of probably the majority also of Black people. You know, nowadays you might hear a lot of people talking about how they followed him and so forth, but at that time again, my perception was that the large majority were frightened by the things Malcolm said. They were so, so extreme it seemed, and so radical by comparison with what others were saying. And then of course you had the people, ah, ah, not only the Nation of Islam itself who were, who, for whom he was speaking, but those who were empathetic with the nation, or were feeling that Malcolm was having the, the courage to say aloud, publicly things which they had felt or which they wished somebody would say. And so that was largely the, the Black reaction was a mixed one, you know, from ah, ah, terrified somewhere by, by what he was saying to those who cheered and applauded when his name was mentioned let alone when he came into sight. Ah, my own perception of Malcolm was one of something that bordered on fascination really because I was looking at him and reacting to him as a subject. I was a young writer, I had been, the usually requisite 15 years getting rejections slips for the most part and finally was beginning to get assignments. And, ah, I saw him as someone who was hard to top as a subject. He was always, I like to say of Malcolm, he was just simply electrical. Everything he did almost was dramatic and it wasn't that he was trying to be, it was just the nature of him. He, in later years I, I would be rather taken by a statement he would make of himself. He would say "I am a part of all I have met." And by that he meant that all the things he had done in his earlier life had exposed him to things that taught him skills of one another sort or it had taught him traits of one another sort, all of which had synthesized into the Malcolm who became the spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Such as that, here was a man who in the eighth grade in Michigan, a school where I think he was the only Black in his class and one of the very few in the school, had been an outstanding A, straight-A student, you know, who had been in fact the president of his class. And all the others were White in the eighth grade. Obviously he had to be exceptional to be those things. So you had that quality which was a facet of him: the brains, the innate ability to learn and to acquire and to use and utilize knowledge. And then you had the Malcolm who had left school and who had gone to Roxbury, Massachusetts where he had gotten his first exposure to what might loosely be called hustling. I remember him telling me with great seriousness about how he had learned at the, the tutoring of a, a, an older person who came from where he had come from in Michigan and who had called him "Homeboy". I, I made that chapter, the title of that chapter was "Homeboy". And this man had taught him his first hustle: that to be a shoeshine boy was OK. He would get say 15 cents or maybe 20 cents per shine, but if he learned how to make the rag pop loudly, there was a way you could use the rag kind of loosely and then jerk it down on the shoe and it would make a noise, a popping noise. And people somehow liked that and they would give Malcolm as much as a quarter tip. And so he became the poppingist shoeboy, shoeshine boy in town and so on. And this type thing, the hustler world, became part of him. And then later he was into more serious things, you know, ah, ah, crime type things. And all of these sharpened his wits and his ability to connive and to do cunning things. And these were part of the Malcolm of 1961, 62 as well. And then finally, the ultimate thing, he was in prison and the world of the prisoner is one that is quite educational in its way. And so that was another part of him. And so Malcolm liked to say that he, the Malcolm as of 1961, 62, and subsequently, he said, "I am a part of all I have met", which was another way of saying he was a synthesis of all that he had learned in these various roles.