And was, was progress being made by 1961?
Well, ah, I think we began to, to, to see some, some, some progress. Ah, ah, for one thing the NAACP, ah, conducted, I think, the nation's first real, real sit-in's, ah, in the city of Detroit in public eating and drinking establishments, ah, ah, and so we, we began to break that, that pattern. Ah, in 1954, in December of `54, ah, one of the major hotels in Detroit, for the first time, permitted Blacks to use their banquet facilities. Ah, ah, and then coming up to, to the election that I think that really had a significant impact from a race relations standpoint was when, ah, the young Jerry Cavanagh, 33 years old, ah, defeated, ah, the incumbent mayor, Louis Miriani, and it was, and tha- and that defeat was brought about, ah, primarily because Blacks had been so aroused, ah, and angered by, ah, Miriani's, ah, police crackdown, which was, ah, really directed against the Black community, that, ah, that Blacks, ah, really were able to mobilize enough votes and with enough White votes to defeat Miriani.