Did things have to be the way that they were? Could things have been different?
Well, I'm not, ah, a determinist. Sure things could have been different. Ah, maybe there, there might have been some elections in the school committee that might have turned out differently. Not all the members of the Boston School Committee during the ten years prior to school desegregation were of one mind on the question of equality of education or racial composition of the schools. So an election here and an election there might have turned out differently. I think if, if moderate leadership, people who cared about education, and who knew that race was an issue in Boston had gotten engaged earlier, and if enough of them had gotten engaged earlier, the outcome would have been different.