Interview with Adrienne Manns-Israel

When you're talking about Stokely and Black consciousness, can you give me a sense of when that whole kind of environment of Black consciousness began to affect the campus and students?


Black consciousness had a real impact on us at Howard in, ah, I think it was '66, '67 because that's the year when Carolyn Carter took over as Editor of the newspaper and we ran a, an editorial on Black Power and Stokely had either spoken at Howard or he was about to come to speak at Howard and we were, we were for once able to say that we weren't just, ah, isolated in our frustrations. And, ah, we began to identify, a lot of people with, not with Stokely but with the ideas. And another impact I think that year were the veterans, the Vietnam veterans who had come in from, just from the war, come on the GI Bill. They were talking it. There were the riots. And there were the people coming in from Philadelphia and Detroit who had been involved in the riots or at least they'd been in the neighborhoods, said they were involved. There was so much that year. I, I can't begin. There was, oh, Ron Karenga and there were, there were so many speakers, so many things happening.